Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry

Olivier T. Guenat, Thomas Geiser & François Berthiaume 


Organs-on-chips (OOC) are widely seen as being the next generation in vitro models able to accurately recreate the biochemical-physical cues of the cellular microenvironment found in vivo. In addition, they make it possible to examine tissue-scale functional properties of multicellular systems dynamically and in a highly controlled manner. Here we summarize some of the most remarkable examples of OOC technology’s ability to extract clinically relevant tissue-level information. The review is organized around the types of OOC outputs that can be measured from the cultured tissues and transferred to clinically meaningful information. First, the creation of functional tissues-on-chip is discussed, followed by the presentation of tissue-level readouts specific to OOC, such as morphological changes, vessel formation and function, tissue properties, and metabolic functions. In each case, the clinical relevance of the extracted information is highlighted.